How To Make Slot Car Tires Sticky?
5. Mix Transmission Fluid, Paint Thinner, and Acetone Solution – This method might prove a bit too complicated for beginners but will get the job done nonetheless. Take paint, thinner, transmission fluid, and acetone (in equal parts) and mix them carefully until they form a uniform solution.
Using a thick cloth or clean rag, apply the solution on your rubber tires and allow them to sit for 20 minutes to an hour. While this method is primarily meant for softening rubber tires, it can also help make them super sticky in the process. In case you choose to use this method, it’s best to gear up with the right safety equipment.
Ensure you have high-quality gloves and work in a place where children or pets won’t come into contact with the solution.
- 1 How do you maintain a slot car track?
- 2 How do you soften car Tyres?
- 3 Why are my tires not gripping?
- 4 How do you add friction to wheels?
- 5 How do you lubricate rubber?
- 6 Does timing matter on slot machines?
- 7 Can a magnet mess up a slot machine?
- 8 Will WD40 soften tires?
- 9 What chemical will soften rubber tires?
- 10 Is higher tire pressure better for grip?
- 11 What affects grip of a tire?
How do you maintain a slot car track?
Cleaning – Slot racing tracks are generally easy to maintain. If your track is raced on regularly it probably doesn’t need too much cleaning, maybe just a few laps with a car to clean up. If the circuit has not been raced on for a while it may need a quick clean.
We recommend cleaning the track rails. Simply use a lightly oiled cloth (PSR braid conditioner) and wipe the track rails to remove dirt from the surface, this will improve car pickup around your track. Another option is to use a track rubber. The track surface may also need to be cleaned as dust can build up and reduce the grip level.
You can simply use a cloth to wipe clean or a few laps driving a car around the circuit will help to clean the rails and surface. Keep cleaning the cars braids and tyres if the grip goes until you have happy with the track condition.
How do you soften car Tyres?
DIY Tips To Soften Tyres For Better Grip Before A Race. Tyres are usually hard and dry which decreases their ability to provide good amount of grip while driving on Road and on tracks. Race car drivers and their teams try their best to maintain and soften tyres so that they can get better traction or grip to win the race.
There are various products in the market which will help you to make the tyres softer but they seem to be expensive. So here are some things which you could use to prep your vehicle’s tyres before a race and make them softer. Also see: Step 1: The best way to soften the tyres is by using kerosene. Take some rags soaked in kerosene and cover the tyres with it.
It is best to be done two to three days before the race. Now wrap the tyres in foil and do not remove it until the day of the race. Using this technique will soften the rubber to get the desired traction or grip. It is advised to try performing this procedure every week to keep the tyres soft.
- Step 2: Next, try mixing one part paint thinner and one part diesel.
- Use a paint roller and apply the mixture of diesel fuel and paint thinner just like painting a wall.
- Roll the paint roller over the surface of the tyre and let the mixture dry on the tyre.
- As soon as you find the mixture to have dried on the surface of the tyre, apply a second coat.
Note: Do not soak the tyre too much because it would damage the tyre permanently. Step 3: Use a 36- inch grinding disk and rough up the surface of the tyre. The reason to do this is to allow the solution which was created in previous step to seep in. Now create a mixture of acetone, Toluene and mineral spirits and apply it to the surface of the tyres.
Make sure to apply it two days before the race so that it could create a chemical reaction and soften the tyres. Step 4: Use and soak the tyre.This is done to remove moisture content from the surface of the tyre.This could be done just a day before the race. It does not provide all the grip that you expect but will give some grip.
If you want quicker results then use and mixture and soak the tyres with this solution for about 10 minutes. By following the above steps, you could easily get softer tyres which will help you to get better traction while entering and exiting the corners.
Why are my tires not gripping?
You Have Excessive Treadwear – If your tires are slipping, the first thing to check is the tread. Low tread can reduce tire traction and cause your wheels to slip, especially in wet conditions or when accelerating from a stop. Particularly worn treads can even lead to tire slippage in dry conditions! Low tread levels can sometimes be easy to spot when looking at the tire.
How do you add friction to wheels?
Asked 7 years, 9 months ago Viewed 7k times $\begingroup$ This is inspired by a project I undertook for my Physics class last year; I’d like to apply it in the future. Background: For the project, I and a few classmates were required to build a small car powered by any of a number of sources; we opted for a mousetrap that turned two rear wheels on a four-wheel car as it was released.
- Our group’s goal was to make the car go as far as possible.
- One problem was that the power source was not constant.
- The lever arm of the trap lifted in an arc for about five seconds, then returned to its resting position.
- During this time, it propelled the car.
- The car then coasted for the rest of the way.
In the powered stage, we wanted to increase traction. The wheels were CDs (because we had a $5.00 budget), which have a tendency to spin out. So we attached pieces of cloth to them to get better traction. On the second stage, however, we found that this cloth slowed down the car quite a bit because it dramatically increased friction (as we found out after several hours of testing different combinations).
Other groups used duct tape to cover the wheels, and some used records, which seemed to do slightly better than CDs (though that violated the size restrictions). Cloth seemed to have the best traction, though – we didn’t have many spinouts. The tests were done on a typical classroom floor (I’m not sure what it’s made of – linoleum? – but it’s the same as in almost every school, at least in America).
In a wheeled vehicle in general – obviously not just a small car powered by a mousetrap – how can I substantially improve traction on the wheels while the power source is on yet reduce friction while it coasts? Is it as simple as choosing certain tires, or is there a bigger and better engineering solution? As a final wrap-up: My thought would be to have a shifting center of mass for the vehicle, where the powered wheels have a lesser tendency to slip and the front wheels are nearly frictionless. 706Astor 1,044 1 gold badge 8 silver badges 19 bronze badges asked Jan 27, 2015 at 14:31 HDE 226868 HDE 226868 2,485 15 silver badges 34 bronze badges $\endgroup$ 3 $\begingroup$ You need to control how fast you apply the power. Some sort of damper mechanism that would allow power to be gradually applied and not cause it to spin out. You could try and wrap the ‘power string’ over different sized pulleys so that you changed the gear ratio. , Edit: You can either guess at the gear ratio or use some basic statics to figure out coefficient of friction and how to avoid slip while applying torque. answered Jan 27, 2015 at 15:24 JedF JedF 486 3 silver badges 11 bronze badges $\endgroup$ 1 $\begingroup$ Frictional forces are related to the surface type and the material type. Traction is related to the amount of friction the wheel can generate as well as the weight applied to the wheel.
- This how-stuff-works article does a pretty good job at covering the relationship between the two properties.
- One popular misconception is that the surface area affects traction of the wheel.
- And dragster style race cars are sometimes cited as an example of proving that point.
- Those vehicles have special rear tires that are wide when at rest but become more narrow as their rotational speed increases.
The belief is that this has the effect of increasing starting traction, but reduced rolling resistance as the area of the wheel in contact with the ground decreases with rotational speed. However, this writeup does a good job at explaining how resulting frictional forces remain the same regardless of the surface area.
Given that the equation for traction $F_t = \mu_tmg$ is equivalent to the friction $F_f = \mu_fmg$ 1, it’s a balancing act between available torque; surface material; and available wheel materials.1 That’s not to say that $\mu_t$ is exactly the same as $\mu_f$ but they are close enough for this case.
answered Jan 27, 2015 at 14:57 $\endgroup$ 2 $\begingroup$ how can I substantially improve traction on the wheels while the power source is on yet reduce friction while it coasts? Considering that, for most purposes, traction is really a function of friction, I think addressing the two cases is better than addressing one in all cases. $\endgroup$ 1 $\begingroup$ Traction, friction, terrain versatility, choose two. If it’s to operate in slippery terrain, it will need high friction to improve traction. But if you can restrict the terrain (and keep reasonable acceleration; you can always trade it off for the remaining three), you can provide a very good traction with minimal friction.
Say, your wheels get cut-outs like a saw blade, angled backwards. You provide a “starting strip” of matching saw-like track with teeth directed forward. That way you prevent all slippage without sacrificing much of friction. The wheels can then either ride over flat terrain adding a little friction from the sawtooth surface, or you can use a dual system, round “rims” extending past the “tracked” sawtooth ones, so once the vehicle leaves the track, it moves on perfectly round wheels the rest of the way.
answered Jan 27, 2015 at 19:47 SF. SF.6,143 22 silver badges 43 bronze badges $\endgroup$ $\begingroup$ The friction you are talking about when referencing the cloth would more correctly be refered to as rolling resistance. In a true sense, you need to increase (the coeficient of) friction to increase traction or increase the force acting normal to the ground.
You can increase the coeficient of friction by changing the wheel material, as you did with the cloth wrap but you found this increased rolling resistance once the vehicle was moving, thus reducing efficiency. An alternative would be to increase mass, thus increasing the force available to generate traction using the formula for traction GlenH7 provided $F_t = \mu_tmg$ where $m$ is mass and $g$ is gravitational acceleration.
Increasing mass will negatively affect your acceleration so you could adjust your design to shift as much of the existing mass to the drive wheels as possible (see the dragster analogy, cars are very long, all the weight is at the back), just enough that the front wheel(s) only just maintains contact with the ground on acceleration (see dragster again). $\endgroup$
What is the best lubricant for rubber?
You might be struggling with the question, White Lithium Grease vs Silicone Lubricant: What’s the Difference? Do not worry! You are not alone. Though both are used for lubrication, lithium greases and silicone lubricants have different specialties and use.
It is so important to know these differences in order to pick the correct product for the job you need to be done to protect and maximise the productivity of your equipment. WD-40’s Specialist Range offers top quality, High-Performance White Lithium Grease and Silicone Lubricant. Read on to find out when to use each product.
White Lithium Grease vs Silicone Lubricant: What’s the Difference? When comparing white lithium grease vs silicone lubricant, it is important to be aware of their formulaic differences and how these affect their uses. You may be wondering what on earth lithium grease is.
It is actually one of the most popular lubricating formulas around the world, and this is because of its multi-function properties. It is both water and heat resistant which means it protects metal from corrosion and rusting and can function in extreme temperatures up to 150 o C. White lithium grease demonstrates excellent adhesion to metal and is perfect for lubricating metal on metal surfaces.
On the other hand, silicone lubricant can be used on a variety of surfaces. It performs excellently on rubber, but it is also very effective on surfaces made from plastic, metal, wood, and other materials. It also helps to prevent surfaces from rust and corrosion because its waterproofing formula repels moisture from surfaces.
- It goes without saying that it is an extremely effective lubricant and prevents friction and stickiness in the areas you apply it to.
- It also repels dirt, dust and grime and ensures that the surfaces are protected and maintained long term.
- Uses and Advantages of Lithium Grease There are so many advantages of Lithium grease as a lubricant to have in your toolbox.
First of all, it is designed for equipment exposed to harsh weather conditions, and WD-40’s White Lithium Grease withstands temperatures from minus 30 to 150 degrees Celsius. The formula of lithium grease is designed to specialise for metal-on-metal lubrication, and it also offers rust protection and reduces friction and wear, which provides great long term lubrication.
- White lithium grease also has a high viscosity, water-resistant formula (on dry film), which means it sprays without dripping or running and will resist water (on dry film).
- Lithium Grease vs White Lithium Grease You may be wondering why the WD-40 Specialist range includes a white lithium grease over just a regular lithium grease.
The main difference between the two is appearance. WD-40 White Lithium Grease sprays onto your surface white and does not run, which makes it more controlled and less messy than regular lithium grease. If you are tossing up between regular lithium grease vs White Lithium Grease, the only thing you need to consider is the noticeability of the product and the colour you want.
- White Lithium Grease Spray Uses One of the main advantages of lithium grease is its performance on mechanisms that are metal on metal surfaces.
- This means that White Lithium Grease spray uses could be car or boot hinges, bearing, gear or piston mechanisms or on equipment that involves being out in the elements like boats, tractors, trucks, or industrial machinery.
When considering your choice between White Lithium Grease vs Silicone Lubricant, make sure you think about the range of operating temperatures that your equipment will be exposed to, as well as the materials that the equipment is made from. This will ensure you are always reaching for the right product for the job.
If you find yourself with a metal-on-metal mechanism that needs some lubrication, reach for WD-40’s High Performance White Lithium Grease. Uses and Advantages of Silicone Lubricant As mentioned above, and unlike lithium grease, silicone lubricant is the perfect lubricant for rubber surfaces, but it is also extremely versatile, so it can be used on most other materials, including metal, plastic, wood, and even painted materials.
Along with its lubricating properties, silicone lubricant is waterproofing and prevents moisture from penetrating into the surface, which causes corrosion and rusting. The application of silicone lubricant is fast and simple and does not attract any dirt or grime.
Another one of the advantages of silicone lubricant is that it can handle different environments such as window seals, doors, plumbing fittings, tools, valves, linkages and other equipment. It is also effective throughout the year, in most weather conditions. If you are looking for an effective, versatile lubricant, pick up a bottle of WD-40 High Performance Silicone Lubricant and add it to your toolbox.
There are so many advantages of silicone lubricant, and it is a great product to have on hand to prevent damages to your tools and extend their lives. What About Oil and Other Products? If you have read this far and you can now answer the question, “White Lithium Grease vs Silicone Lubricant: What’s the Difference?”, you might be wondering if there are any other lubricating products that could be useful for the jobs you have around your house or workshop.
WD-40’s Specialist Range offers a wide variety of products designed for even the most specific and difficult jobs, and the years of science behind WD-40’s formulas ensure that they are high performing and long-lasting solutions to your problems. If you are looking for a lubricant for the power tools in your workshop, why not try the WD-40 Anti-Friction Dry PTFE Lubricant Spray ? It is formulated with Teflon and leaves a non-stick dry film that protects the affected area from dirt, dust or grime.
It is perfect for jobs like lubricating power tool blades, drill bits, cranks, and axles, as well as maintaining and protecting hydraulics and hand tools. You might need a product that protects against rust and corrosion. Pick up the WD-40 Rust Prevention Lanolin is designed to protect metal surfaces in high humidity climates from rust.
For a product that cleans not only sensitive electrical equipment but also metal, plastic and rubber surfaces, try the WD-40 Contact Cleaner, which is a non-conductive formula designed to easily remove dirt, dust, condensation and flux residue. WD-40 also offers Specialist ranges for gardening, bikes, and automotive vehicles, so whatever the job, WD-40 has the answer.
White Lithium Grease vs Silicone Lubricant: Which Is Right for Me? A general rule of thumb if you are still confused about the question White Lithium Grease vs Silicone Lubricant: What’s the Difference is as follows. If your job involves lubrication of metal-on-metal surfaces that are exposed to the elements and potentially harsh weather conditions, reach for WD-40’s White Lithium Grease.
Otherwise, you can reach for WD-40’s Silicone Lubricant if you have a surface made from wood, rubber, plastic, or most other materials that require lubrication, protection from moisture, dirt, grime or dust or the prevention of sticking or binding. If you find yourself wanting a different or even more specialised product, check out the other formulas in WD-40’s Specialist ranges.
The WD-4 Specialist Range with White Lithium Grease and Silicone Lubricant are available from a variety of hardware stores, including Bunnings, Mitre 10, Repco and Whitworths. Now that you know the difference between White Lithium Grease and Silicone Lubricant, you have no excuse not to pop down to your local store and grab a can of the WD-40 product you need.
How do you lubricate rubber?
A Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Approach to Selecting Assembly Lubricants – Rubber is everywhere! Have you ever stopped to consider how many rubber parts are in your car? Or your dishwasher? Or the airplane flying you away to your dream vacation? So many items that we use every day are composed of thousands of rubber parts of varying size and shape. road. Rubber is truly a unique material. It is elastic yet strong, smooth yet tacky, lightweight yet insulates and protects, and soft yet abrasion-resistant. Rubber stretches and compresses, waterproofs no matter its thickness, and remains flexible over a wide temperature range.
What’s more amazing is that any of these properties can be optimized by compounding rubber articles using select elastomers, fillers, processing aids, activators and vulcanizing agents. Rubber’s versatility is only limited by one’s imagination. It’s no wonder rubber is so valuable in many industries for an unlimited number of applications including vibration and sound dampening, sealing, electrical and thermal insulation, chemical transport and waterproofing.
Rubber is quite versatile. It can be pushed, pulled, stretched, compressed, or heated to fit in, on, or over anything. Rubber is inherently tacky and can be squeezed into tight areas, but it is naturally slip resistant making it difficult to install, remove or manipulate.
It’s not unusual for rubber parts to slip during assembly and not go exactly where they’re intended: an O-ring may get twisted, a heater hose may not be fully inserted, a gap can appear in a waterproof seam. Successful assembly can be tricky. Improper assembly can lead to a multitude of problems including destroyed parts, warranty claims, recalls and worker fatigue or injury.
So, why has rubber installation always seemed to be an afterthought? Coating rubber parts with a liquid to provide lubrication prior to assembly helps avoid some of the aforementioned problems. Traditionally, lubricant choice was based on convenience. Enter the Engineers To protect product integrity and ensure environmental and worker safety, engineers became involved in the lubricant selection process. Design Engineers, Lubricant Engineers and Ergonomic Engineers all take part in choosing the proper lubricant for each assembly process. Lubricants Are a Part of the Design Process As a result of these concerns, lubricants are now included in the initial design phase of many engineered parts. In addition to detailing all facets of the part, material specifications now include the accompanying assembly lubricant and its proper assembly technique.
Design stages include a battery of lubricant trials and choices are made based on performance, cost and safety. More and more frequently, water-based lubricants are the product of choice. The Power of Water-Based Lubricants A well-formulated oil-in-water emulsion overpowers the low surface energy of rubber.
This means the emulsion completely coats the surface without beading up. The oil portion has a natural affinity to the rubber surface and the water is exposed to the environment, facilitating evaporation. Only a thin layer of oil contacts the rubber, an ample volume for successful assembly.
The thin coating ensures no residue, temporary lubrication, no compatibility issues and a safe working environment. Once assembled, the water evaporates and the lubrication ceases. Water-based lubricants can be formulated with different properties making them ideal for essentially any assembly application.
Lubricant properties such as viscosity, dry time, biodegradability, compatibility, and surface residue (such as adhesiveness) are all taken into consideration. Engineers can now choose a lubricant tailored exactly to their needs before production begins, eliminating many of the problems that used to occur after assembly. The lubricant selection process has evolved so that it is now a true collaboration between Design, Lubricant and Ergonomic Engineers. Learn more here about this multi-disciplinary engineering approach to selecting assembly lubricants. ‘)}catch(e) delete t.name}else o=n.createElement(“iframe”);return t.id&&(o.id=t.id,delete t.id),o.allowtransparency=”true”,o.scrolling=”no”,o.setAttribute(“frameBorder”,0),o.setAttribute(“allowTransparency”,!0),i.forIn(t,function(t,e) ),i.forIn(e,function(t,e) ),o}},function(t,e,n) t.exports= },isHorizonTimelineVariantSupported:a,isHorizonTimelineEnabled:function(t,e) }},function(t,e) }},function(t,e),function(t,e,n) )},trigger:function(t,e) )}}},function(t,e,n) function a(t) ;return arguments.length>1&&(e.params=.slice.call(arguments,1)),e}s.prototype._generateId=function(),s.prototype.notify=function(),s.prototype.request=function() )},t.exports=s},function(t,e,n) )=e:r=e,t.postMessage(r,”*”))}function h(t) function d(t,e) function m(t,e) function g(t,e),this.target=t,this.isTwitterHost=c.isTwitterURL(r.href),this.filter=h(e),i.addEventListener(“message”,f(this._onMessage,this),!1)}u.aug(m.prototype, ))},attachTo:function(t),detach:function() }),u.aug(g.prototype,,_onMessage:function(t) catch(t) (e=u.isType(“array”,e)?e:).forEach(f(this._processResponse,this))}},send:function(t) }),t.exports= }},function(t,e,n) }},function(t,e) }},function(t,e) },,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,function(t,e,n),function(t,e,n) A.aug(“config”, ),i=(r=v).getElementById(“b”),o=r.getElementById(“widget”),s=function(t) );return t}(x.combined(y)),a=,u=,c=,m=j(R.asNumber(s.time)),R.asBoolean(s.dnt)&&P.setOn(),s.lang=s.lang&&s.lang.toLowerCase(),r.body.parentNode.lang=s.lang=I.contains(S,s.lang)?s.lang:”en”,A.set(“lang”,s.lang),d=_(“ltr”),s.type=I.contains(u,s.type)?s.type:”share”,s.size=a?s.size:”m”,L(r.body,a||””),(“mention”==s.type||s.screen_name)&&((h=O.screenName(s.screen_name))?s.screen_name=h:(delete s.screen_name,”mention”==s.type&&(s.type=”share”))),”hashtag”==s.type||s.button_hashtag?(p=O.hashTag(s.button_hashtag,!1))?(s.button_hashtag=p,s.hashtags=s.button_hashtag+”,”+(s.hashtags||””)):(delete s.button_hashtag,s.type=”share”):”share”==s.type&&(s.url=s.url||r.referrer),c.push(d),L(r.body,c.join(” “)),r.body.setAttribute(“data-scribe”,”section:”+s.type),g=r.getElementById(“l”),r.title=_(“Tweet Button”),g.innerHTML=function() “, );case”mention”: return _(“Tweet to % “, );default:return _(“Tweet”)}}(),i.parentNode.style.width=i.offsetWidth+”px”,N.triggerResize(o),L(r.body,”ready”),f=,l=A.get(“config.intentURL”)+”?”+E.encode(f),m||T.clientEvent(,,!1),i.href=l,i.onclick=function(t),!1),N.trigger(“click”,”tweet”),N.trigger(“tweet”,”tweet”),t.altKey||t.shiftKey||t.metaKey||b.ios()||b.android()))return e=l,s.id,w.open(e,null),function(t) (t)}}])); ” style=”display: inline-block; line-height: 1; vertical-align: bottom; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; text-indent: 0px; text-align: center;”> Print
What kind of oil do slot cars use?
Oils, Cleaners, Glues A wide variety of chemicals and solvents are available for the cleaning and lubrication of slot cars and track. Many of these products can be made from commonly available products found at any good hardware store or pharmacy. If you are racing on a budget, or use large quantities of these materials making your own can be very inexpensive.
Modern slot cars use a preponderance of synthetic plastic compounds for both the chassis and the body. When using any product for the first time, test it in an out of the way place first to make certain it will not harm the plastic itself. This is especially true of the plastic used in injection-molded body shells.
Oils Mobil 1 Synthetic motor oil is an ideal lubricant for slot cars. Purchase or re-use a pin-point oiler and fill it with Mobil 1 to produce your own racing oil. Mobil 1 synthetic oil is safe to use on plastic bushings as well as sintered bronze oilite bearings.
- A quart will cost about $5.00 and should last a lifetime.
- Get the lightest viscosity you can find.
- There’s even a 5W that you can get at better speed shops and racing centers.
- Cleaners Commercial lighter fluid has several uses in slot car racing.
- It can be used to clean and soften rubber tires, as a general purpose cleaner or as a mild solvent to remove the adhesive left behind when stickers are removed.
Lighter fluid is one of the best general purpose cleaners available for slot car racing. Commercial products made by companies such as Ronson and Zippo are simply Naphtha. Check the label for yourself! Save your next empty container and fill it with Naphtha,
- The applicator nozzle that comes with the commercial containers is perfect for applying small amounts.
- Naphtha can be found in the paint department at any good hardware store or building supply house.
- A gallon will cost around $2.00.
- WD-40® aerosol spray can also be used to clean and protect the metal power rails on a slot car track.
WD-40 is NOT a lubricant, but rather a water displacement product, hence the WD-40 designation given to it by the Rocket Chemical Company in 1953. WD-40 works well to protect metal power rails from oxidation and corrosion. WD-40 will however destroy plastic over time, so take care to apply it to the metal power rails only,
WD-40 is available just about everywhere. The best prices however are usually found at large discount stores such as K-Mart or Wal-Mart. It’s also available at most hardware store for slightly more. A large aerosol can will cost approximately $3.00 Formula 409 Commercial Cleaner & Degreaser makes an excellent cleaner for plastic and routed wooden tracks.
It will also safely clean rubber and silicone tires. It’s available in the Automotive Cleaners section of most department stores, home improvement outlets and auto parts suppliers. It can be applied directly to the track surface and then wiped clean with a rag.
- Note: Use Formula 409 Cleaner & Degreaser, NOT the oven cleaner sold in the cleaning products isle at the grocery store.
- Adhesives Permatex Flowable Silicone Windshield and Glass Sealer 65A can be used to coat and seal foam rubber tires.
- Glue unground foam rubber tires to your rear hubs and sand to the proper size.
Then coat the foam rubber with a thin layer of this flowable silicone sealer. Permatex Windshield Sealer is much thinner than the normal silicone caulk used to seal bathtubs surrounds. Permatex Windshield Sealer can be purchased at most auto parts outlets and better hardware stores.
Plastruct Plastic Weld is perfect for repairing crash damage to bodies. The small wings of Formula One and IndyCar bodies can be re-attached using this product. Plastic Weld can also be used to glue track sections together to create tight joints that won’t separate. Plastruct Plastic Weld has a small brush applicator mounted to the inside of the cap to make plastic repairs fast and strong.
Keep the cap tightly closed when not in use though, or it will evaporate! For best results let the joined parts cure overnight before using them. Plastruct sells a general purpose plastic solvent cement that can be used with a variety of plastics including Styrene, ABS, Acrylic and Butyrate.
Solvent is applied to the two surfaces that are to be “welded” and then the parts are held together. The solvent will actually melt the plastic surfaces and join them in a strong “welded” bond. Cyanoacrylate or CA, is ideal for fixing sintered bronze axle bearings to a plastic chassis. It can also be used to repair small plastic parts that break and fall off of plastic body shells.
CA, unless mixed with glycerin dries almost immediately. Most R/C departments sell a variety of CA blends for fast, medium and slow curing. The medium curing blend allows approximately 30-45 seconds of adjustment time before it hardens. Cyanoacrylate works best on non-porous materials.
- Plastic, metal and glass can usually be successfully bonded using CA, but wooden and fabric items can not.
- As with any adhesive or glue, the strongest joints are achieved when the two mating materials are clean and free of any oils or dirt residue.
- Cyanoacrylate can be found in the R/C department of most better hobby shops.
A 2-4 oz. bottle will cost about $4.00 Cyanoacrylate can be removed using a dissolver blended specifically for that purpose. Most R/C departments that sell Cyanoacrylate adhesives will also sell a dissolver. You can make your own though by simply using straight Acetone.
Cyanoacrylate adhesives can safely be used with just about any plastic compound, but the remover, because it contains acetone, may not. So again, test the product on a scrap of similar material before you commit to using it on an expensive slot car. This is an adhesive you probably can not blend at home, unless you’re a chemist.
It can be purchased in 2-4 oz. containers in the R/C department at any good hobby shop though. The small bottles sold in hardware stores can be quite expensive, and the caps often wind up permanently attached to the bottle long before the contents are used up.
- Track Care The steel power rails in all brands of HO slot car track tend to oxidize (rust) when not in use.
- Model Railroading enthusiast often use a product called RailZip to slow the inevitable rail oxidation process.
- Dexron ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluid) has essentially the same chemical properties as RailZip, but it’s much more economical.
A 1 quart bottle will cost about $2.00 and should last a lifetime. Apply a small amount of Dexron ATF to a clean rag and then wipe it on just the steel power rails. Let it work overnight, and then the next day wipe up any remaining residue. Dexron ATF has strong detergents for cleaning and anti-oxidants for retarding new rust formation.
Does timing matter on slot machines?
A shuffle through the Gaming mailbag: Q. Does it help at all if I alter my timing in spinning the slot reels? I feel myself getting in patterns where I hit the button in the same rhythm time after time. Would it change things if every so often I took a sip of water or skipped a beat to watch the player next to me for a spin or two, or looked around to see if I could spot the cocktail waitress? A.
- Would it change things? Yes.
- Would the change be for the better? On average, no.
- The random number generator that determines your results runs continuously.
- Once it receives a signal that you’re playing, such as you hitting a repeat bet button, it relays numbers for that spin to a program that maps the numbers onto reel position.
The RNG is very fast, and if you play faster or slower than usual, you will get different random numbers and different outcomes. Sometimes those different outcomes will be better and sometimes they’ll be worse. On average, changing your timing and rhythm will yield the same payback percentage as keeping a steady betting pattern.
- There’s no way to take advantage of knowing changing timing will change results.
- You can’t see what numbers are coming from the RNG.
- You don’t know if skipping a beat will bring a jackpot, a zero-pay spin or anything in between.
- Barring exceptional circumstances – see the question below – there’s no way to predict what’s coming next to improve your results.
If you’re in a losing streak and feel like you’re stuck in a rhythm rut, then by all means, give it a go. Try changing your timing. It won’t hurt, but it doesn’t really help, either.Q. I’ve seen the random number generator on slot machines referred to as a “pseudo” random number generator.
- Why is that? Are the numbers random or not? A.
- One of the phrases I’ve used over and over in describing slots and other electronic games is, “as random as humans can program a computer to be.” Pure randomness may or may not be possible.
- I’ve had a scientist friend tell me nothing in the universe above quantum level is random, and even then there’s doubt.
So game makers do the best they can to approximate randomness. In a pseudo-RNG Numbers are calculated by an algorithm, almost always beginning with a seed number. Additional factors are designed into the mix. Some use varying entry points to the algorithm depending on whether you bet by touching the screen or the button panel, or whether you use the “repeat bet” button or the button for your desired number of credits on each spin.
The result is so close to true randomness that test programs can’t tell the difference. There are no obvious repeating patterns. At times, codes have been cracked and pseudo-RNGs have been beaten. This almost always involves inside knowledge, such as the 2017 incident when a Russian team got its hands on slot machines and were able to decipher the RNG and apply the knowledge in casinos.
Without such inside knowledge, spotting any pattern in the algorithm is near-impossible. Results as so close to random they might as well be random. So they satisfy randomness standards in jurisdictions that regulate slots. Accordingly, I used “random number generator” and “RNG” just because adding “pseudo” every time would make for clumsy reading.
Can a magnet mess up a slot machine?
4. Magnet – We often get asked how to cheat a slot machine with a magnet. Let’s get one thing clear: it’s not actually possible to cheat modern day slot machines with a magnet, since they’re all programmed by computer software and aren’t magnetic. However, people used to be able to cheat with a magnet on the older machines, when they were made of metal.
Will WD40 soften tires?
WD40 for softening tires? I run in a class were everyone has 1 brand tire to run, and we have some tires that have lied for awhile, so they’ve gone hard, but i heard that i could soften them up with some wd40? I run in a class were everyone has 1 brand tire to run, and we have some tires that have lied for awhile, so they’ve gone hard, but i heard that i could soften them up with some wd40? WD-40 will soften some just from putting oils back into the tire.
Really depends on what youre trying to accomplish on whether to go this route or to use a brand name prep line. WD-40 is cheap, and it does have a time and place though. WD-40 will soften some just from putting oils back into the tire. Really depends on what youre trying to accomplish on whether to go this route or to use a brand name prep line.
WD-40 is cheap, and it does have a time and place though. We don’t want super soft or anything, but the tire has gone hard over time, and we heard that using wd40 on it would work, sounds like you are saying the same thing. We don’t wanna spend money on preps, we’re from Denmark.
But how do we proceed with this? I heard give the tires a few coats of wd40 and then wrap in plastic? And how long before race? After racing I wash my tires with a scouring pad. After they dry I spray liberal amount of WD-40 on them. I don’t bother wrapping them since my tires get used again pretty quickly.
If you are going to wrap them let them dry completely before you do. WD-40 will leave a nice “grippy” feeling tire ready to be prepped and run. DD After racing I wash my tires with a scouring pad. After they dry I spray liberal amount of WD-40 on them. I don’t bother wrapping them since my tires get used again pretty quickly. If you are going to wrap them let them dry completely before you do. WD-40 will leave a nice “grippy” feeling tire ready to be prepped and run. DD yes sir.this is a good way. I think you may need new tires with the right compound. I run in a class were everyone has 1 brand tire to run, and we have some tires that have lied for awhile, so they’ve gone hard, but i heard that i could soften them up with some wd40? WD-40 will not soften a tire, if it does maybe just maybe a 1/4 on the duro. ACF-50 works well too. It does not dry as solvents flash off. One treatment lasts quite a while. Softening is pretty easy. Zylene or Actone, diesel fuel. ATF with stop leak 1/2 gal of Zylene or Actone 1/2 gal Diesel approx 16oz Trans Stop Leak Once you get them where you want them.
What softens hardened rubber?
Chemical Rubber Softeners – Before applying any chemicals to a rubber component, be aware of what kind of rubber you’re handling. Elbex explains that while some rubbers, such as butyl, are excellent for sealing in and outgasses and are therefore used for tires, this substance can also be very susceptible to petroleum products.
- In contrast, nitrile has higher resistance to gasoline and oils, but it lacks resistance to gasses.
- Nowing which kind of rubber you’re handling can help avoid unnecessary swelling and loss of performance.
- Shin-Etsu Silicone’s studies on the effects of various oils and solutions on various types of rubber provide helpful information.
For instance, it indicates that while boiling water would have minimal impact on silicone, rubbing down butyl with glycol after heating would result in much less swelling or material degradation. While sulfur was the original plasticizer for natural rubber, you can soften most modern rubber by allowing it to soak for at least 24 hours in a solution of three parts isopropyl alcohol and one part methyl salicylate.
What chemical will soften rubber tires?
The treatment of racing tires with various solutions has been a hotly debated topic for a number of years. During the last ten years or so, the art has become a science of sorts. Teams have become more know-ledgeable, dedicated companies have emerged and are prospering, and a whole culture of soakers has emerged.
This secret group is much like the early moonshiners who plied their trade right under the noses of the authorities. The flip side of this coin is that the practice is opposed by the “soak police” who promote, operate, and sanction the various racetracks across the country. Let’s take a look at the evolution of this phenomenon, the specifics of the treatments and why they might be effective, and where we stand today on all sides of this issue.
How It All Began Soon after the development of dedicated racing tires, teams quickly discovered that the sooner a tire was raced after leaving the mold, the better it gripped the track and the faster the car could go through the turns. The longer a tire sat on the shelf, the harder it got and the less grip it had.
That basic principle is still true of today’s racing tires. Many manufacturers will advise you to store your tires in a dark, cool place and wrap them to help prevent deterioration due to the evaporation of certain chemicals that help maintain the elasticity of race tires. As racers became aware of the shortfalls of advanced age in a race tire, they began to search for ways to introduce various ingredients into the tire so that it could live a longer life.
In the mid-’90s, a few enterprising teams took advantage of the use of tire treatments to freshen up their tires. Most teams were not aware of the process. This left a select few winners who cleaned up each weekend. The soakers’ world came crashing down when some of the sanctioning bodies declared that all teams were to purchase and use their race day tires on the day of the race.
That ended the reign of many soak champions. Almost overnight, teams that were considered unbeatable could not keep up and were struggling to finish in the Top 5 each race night. So, as it always happens in racing, everyone had to get smarter in order to circumvent the rules, and that they eventually did.
How Big Is It? In today’s racing world, it is important for us to understand the magnitude of the “problem” in terms of the following: 1. In which classes does soaking exist? 2. What percentage of racers are in a particular type of racing soak? 3. Are the numbers growing? The answers to these questions will astound most outsiders and many who think they are in the know.
- The only people who know beyond a shadow of a doubt are the users themselves, who stay very quiet on the subject, and the actual manufacturers of the products, where discretion is mandatory.
- We talked with a number of people from both groups and discovered the real truth.
- We promised not to reveal their names, series, or any other information about them.
We can say that the teams who use treatments are not who you would call outlaws or devout cheaters, but in most cases ordinary teams that are well-respected and only do what many others are doing. A certain percentage of racers in virtually every segment of the circle track industry use tire treatments to enhance the grip properties and longevity of their tires.
- The companies who manufacture, market, and sell race tire treatments in various forms tell us that the number of users of their products is much greater than anyone would ever imagine.
- More and more, teams are discovering the advantages of soaking.
- They feel it is no different from seeking out the best engine or chassis builder in order to keep up with the competition.
Is Soaking That Effective?There are various claims made by those who use and sell tire treatments about how effective the treatments are. The real numbers depend a lot on the driver’s experience level, the setup in the car, and the racetrack itself. Claims of lap times two- to five-tenths lower may be valid for a worn-out track, whereas you might not need to soak the tires at all on a newly paved track.
- True average lap time gains are in the two- to three-tenth range.
- That could be the difference between starting and running in the Top 5 or the middle of the pack.
- Many companies claim the tires will run cooler and last up to 50 percent longer by using tire treatment.
- The lower temperatures, they say, are due to the fact that a tire that grips the track better will slide around less, causing less heat and generating friction.
More grip also reduces the amount of wear because the tire is not scuffing off little pieces lap after lap. Tire treatments generally do not make the tire sticky. Chemicals that would do that would also cause the tire to wear excessively and not last but a few laps.
The modern blends will make the tire surface more flexible so that the face of the tire can conform to the track surface. The rougher the track surface, the more difference the treated tires will make. It’s all about helping the tire make complete contact with the entire surface of the track instead of sitting atop the peaks and missing the valleys like a hard tire will do.
Used tires can be brought up to near-new grip capability simply by applying treatments to them. This allows a team to run the same tire for several weeks if the races aren’t too long. For a track that runs feature races of 35-50 laps, a team might expect to use a set of tires for several weeks before needing to buy new tires and still be competitive.
- Many teams on the low end of the budget scale will buy low-lap-count used tires from the teams who can afford new tires every week.
- They treat them, and then, with the right setup, are able to compete on a fairly even basis with the high-dollar programs.
- Is This Good or Bad for the Sport? Depending on your conversation, racers who use tire-enhancing compounds are either ruining the sport or causing it to grow.
Most racetracks forbid the use of tire treatments. Some are aggressive in enforcing the rules while others tend to look the other way, or worse, practice selective enforcement for whatever reason. Irwindale Speedway in California went so far as to bring in a tire “dope”-sniffing dog that had been trained to sniff select chemicals that are used in most tire treatments.
It worked; the first night, several hits were recorded and those teams were told to not come back with treated tires. (See sidebar) Many tracks rely on tire durometers that are used to measure the indentation hardness of the tire. The use of these instruments is subjective and inaccurate at times. The tire must have been run and heated in order for most of the soaks to work.
Therefore, on a cold tire, or one that has been allowed to cool sufficiently, the reading will be fairly normal. The durometer reading itself is indicative of the age of a new tire. For a new batch of tires that may have just arrived from the tire manufacturer, the reading might just be near the softness limit, while a few months later with the vendor selling from the same batch, the reading might be much higher.
- Suppose I purchase a set from a newly “hatched” batch, wrap them in cellophane, and store them in a cool, dark place.
- When I go to use them later on, they will read a lot softer than other tires from the same batch that have hardened after being stored in a trailer, enduring high heat day in and day out.
The difference can be substantial and I have not cheated by soaking the tires, but I may well be a target of suspicion and disqualified nonetheless. Some tracks will penalize a team with tires that measure significantly softer than the majority of other teams’ tires.
- The above example shows why this may not be the right thing to do.
- What is best for the sport is having close competition in which everyone is on the same page and all racers are doing the same thing-not something in between.
- Since some racers will always soak, that leaves little choice for the tracks.
Is Tire Soaking Dangerous? Just about all tire companies warn racers against the use of chemical treatment of their tires. The two largest manufacturers of racing tires in the U.S. include the following warnings on their Web sites: Goodyear: Never attempt to treat or alter the tire carcass and/or tread compound of any Goodyear Racing Tire; such as tire “soaking” or use of tread “softener.” This practice could result in premature or catastrophic tire failure with resulting serious injury or death.
Hoosier: Chemical Treatment of Tires-Hoosier Racing Tire Corporation strictly forbids any chemical alteration of the tire carcass and/or tread compound such as tire “soaking” or use of tread “softener.” These warnings carry a degree of validity for those who choose to mix up their own batch of tire brew in the backyard barn.
Some types of chemicals will deteriorate the tire compound as well as the core structure and possibly cause the tire to fail with obviously dangerous results. The companies who publicly sell tire treatments all have a highly refined knowledge of the chemicals they use and exactly how those affect the tire in all areas.
Many of the early concoctions were made using, among other things, turpentine, kerosene, and creosote. Modern commercial race tire treatments do not use these chemicals. In fact, the argument that modern tire treatments use so-called dangerous chemicals that can cause health problems is absolutely true.
The problem with that presentation is that these same chemicals are found in products we all use on a day-to-day basis such as gasoline, paint, and paint thinners and solvents. Tuluene, Xylene, and Acetone may be used in some or all of the modern tire treatments.
- When asked if tire treatments may contain those chemicals, an expert in the industry confirmed it.
- At first glance, these sound like chemicals we should avoid, but do we really come in contact with these in our everyday lives? Let’s see what the government has to say about their availability and uses.
Tuluene: The EPA states on its Web site that “the largest chemical use for tuluene is to make benzene and urethane. It is released into the atmosphere principally from the volatilization (vaporization) of petroleum fuels and tuluene-based solvents and thinners and from motor vehicle exhaust.” Xlyene: OSHA says, “Xylene is used as a solvent in paint, printing, rubber, and leather industries; as a solvent for gums and resins, rubber, castor and linseed oils and dibenzylcellulose; as a constituent of paints, lacquers, varnishes, inks, dyes, adhesives, and cleaning fluids; as a carrier in production of epoxy resins; as a degreaser and cleaning agent; as a constituent of motor and aviation fuels; in chemical synthesis; and in the manufacture of quartz crystal oscillators, perfumes, and insect repellents.” Acetone: From the CDC Web site: “Acetone is a manufactured chemical that is also found naturally in the environment.
- Acetone is used to make plastic, fibers, drugs, and other chemicals.
- It is also used to dissolve other substances.
- It occurs naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases, forest fires, and as a product of the breakdown of body fat.
- It is present in vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and landfill sites.” There are some very dangerous and sometimes illegal chemicals that some racers try to incorporate into their homemade treatments.
Legitimate tire-treatment manufacturers do not use ingredients that either hurt the tire or are illegal or overly dangerous to the user. Several representatives of these companies told us their products are no more dangerous to handle than gasoline or motor oil.
A certain degree of care must be taken when handling all chemicals, even everyday cleaning products. The facts about the safety of legitimate commercial tire treatments speak for themselves. All of the companies we contacted told us they would not be in the business of selling race tire treatment if they thought it dangerous.
With our litigious society as it is, they wouldn’t have to make that decision-the public would make it for them. What Does The Future Hold?The fact is that most racers want to use tire treatments. A few don’t want to use it but must because other top teams soak.
Since tire soaking makes the tires perform better, the cars will handle better. When the cars handle better, we get better racing for the benefit of the spectators. Better racing means more attendance and more money to run the track, not to mention more profits for the track owners. Racers are allowed to, within certain limitations, tune their carburetors, motors, setups, shocks, gearing, and so on, so why not the tires? Some have suggested that one reason tracks are adamant about stopping soaking is because they operate as the tire vendor, and that is a source of income for the track owners.
If every team were able to use their tires longer through the use of soaking, then fewer tires would be sold. If true, this mentality is directly contrary to what most promoters and sanctioning bodies say. Their stated goals supposedly include finding ways to save the racer money.
- Among the most expensive items a racer must continually buy are the tires.
- Many parts companies and race shops offer to treat a race team’s tires for them at a cost of around $45 per set.
- You can do it yourself for less.
- Compare the low cost of soaking to that of a new set valued at between $400 and $600 per set.
Do the math: Example savings-for 30 weeks of racing, a team either buys new tires every week at $440 for a yearly total of $13,200, or soaks and uses the same tires for three weeks for a yearly total of $4,400 (10 sets at $440) plus $45 per week soaking costs, which totals $5,750 yearly.
- Soaking saves this team $7,450.
- That’s enough to freshen most Late Model race engines or actually purchase a new Stock class motor.
- There have been teams that could continue to race in part to the availability and use of tire treatments and the cost savings.
- So, does the future of racing really depend on the elimination or the allowance of soaking? The fact remains that you can only treat a tire to a certain level of durometer reading whether it is new or used.
Soaking could possibly level the playing field in many cases. Many racers feel it’s time the promoters across the country were better educated and responsive to what the racers really want and need on all fronts. That means having the integrity to put the racer, who spends lots of money to show up and put on the show every week, at the top, instead of at the bottom, of the food chain.
The more popular soaking becomes, the better the products will become. It is the opinion of many racers that when everyone is allowed by rule to treat their tires, no one will have an advantage in the area of tires. More teams will be able to afford to race more competitively, and then the sport will be better off.
The Nose KnowsIt’s against the rules to soak tires at California’s Irwindale Speedway, and it has been a tech inspector’s nightmare to find the culprits. Due to the complexity of the checking process, some tracks don’t even test for soaking, turning a blind eye to the process.
That’s not the case at Irwindale. In March 2004 Sinbad jumped out of the SUV of his handler, Scott Edmonds, and went to work. The 10-year-old Belgian Malinois is coming out of retirement from his work as a bomb-sniffing dog to help the track. He has an official “hard card” identification (No. K9-1) and is a fixture in the pit area.
The idea came from Ed Branch, who runs the tire program at the track. Branch contacted Interquest Detection Canines in Pasadena after theorizing that if dogs can sniff out bombs, drugs, and other illicit materials, they might also be able to detect illegal tires.
- Edmonds confirmed that it could be done, and Sinbad was selected for the task.
- The dog went through countless training sessions to differentiate between official and illegal tires.
- Tests were conducted on hot afternoons and cool nights.
- Sinbad’s final exam grade was 100 percent.
- On the night of his first visit to the track’s inspection line, Sinbad sat at three cars and followed that with a post-race sitting.
After track officials visited the teams, there were assorted confessions of illegal activity. Sinbad’s record is intact. Racers may not consider him man’s best friend, but his nose knows when something is amiss. Like all tech officials, who usually work like a dog on race nights, he’s just doing his job.-Larry Jewett
Is higher tire pressure better for grip?
What feels fast, might not be fast – Very high tyre pressures might feel fast, but they’re not. Once you go past a certain point, adding more air to your tyres actually decreases grip, increases high-frequency vibrations and causes extra muscular fatigue. All of these things slow you down. Getting your tyre pressure right is both faster and more comfortable.
Is higher tire pressure more grip?
Here’s the bottom line. Maintaining your target hot pressure for the major part of your race, whether it is a ten lap circuit race, or a short run in autocross – this is the number one priority. It applies under any track conditions, wet or dry. – In racing, the grip of the tyre depends on the vertical load, or weight on that tyre. With weight transfer in cornering, the vertical load varies a lot. You have increasing load going to the outside tyre, up to 1.5 to 2 times the static load, and the equivalent decreasing load on the inside tyre. Operating pressure has an influence on the shape of the tyre contact patch.
The vertical load and tyre pressure influence the shape of the contact patch. In matching the pressure to the weight of the car, we are trying to maintain the most suitable contact patch shape for the tyre. Now before we go into the detail of this, let’s start with what we know about road tyres. Tyres on the Road Consider the “tyre placard” (or the relevant section in your Workshop Manual).
Here you see the recommended tyre pressures from the manufacturer. My wife’s Ford Focus is sitting in the driveway, so I’ve just popped outside to check the recommended pressures.1-3 passengers and luggage for 1-3: 31 psi front, 31 psi rear 4-5 passengers and luggage for 4-5 (load is biased towards the rear) 35 psi front, 41 psi rear Note: For fully loaded car, 4 psi extra in the front and 10 psi extra at the rear, due to the extra rear load.
- The thing about manufacturers recommended tyre pressures is that you set them cold in the morning, and then do not bleed them off when the tyres build up pressure in the heat of the day, or with running on the road.
- On the road, as opposed to racing, we are working from a cold pressure and the design of the tyre characteristics are such that any pressure build-up is accommodated.
Clearly, the manufacturer’s recommendation is to set the recommended pressure with the tyres at ambient temperature, the so-called “cold pressure”. So, what does this say about setting the tyre pressures at the service station, when you’re on your way home after a trip? If you were to just re-set the tyres to recommended pressures, the hot tyres will be over pressured.
- You need to bleed the tyre pressures down the next morning, when the tyres have cooled to the ambient temperature.
- One “advanced” option here.
- Say you are doing sustained high speed running on the highway.
- Say you determine your best pressure for tyre performance is 33 psi all round.
- In this case, with more knowledge about the tyre characteristics, you might bleed off the excess pressure.
You could get your tyres up to running temperature first, and then bleed back to your target hot pressure of 33psi, just as you do on your race car. You can read everything you need to know about tyres on the road on the Tire Rack website, including an interesting bit from Michelin about tyres aquaplaning in the wet with just 5 psi less than the manufacturer’s recommended pressure.
There are three wheel sizes for this vehicle – 16s, 17s and 18s, with 50, 55 and 40 series tires. Yet the same pressures are recommended for all tire and wheel combinations. That’s something we can think about for racing tyres. Could it be that tyres of different construction and different wheel sizes run the same pressure? Broadly speaking, yes.
On the other hand, look at the 10 psi pressure difference between light load and heavy load. That’s most certainly something we can think about for racing!
The weight of the vehicle on the tyre determines what tyre pressure we need on the road. The same applies for racing. Hot Tyre Pressures for Racing For racers, our best source of tyre info is the Hoosier “Tire Care and Safety Guidelines”. You can Google and download it.
Hoosier is the racers friend when it comes to tyre data and info. The reason, I guess, is that they don’t have to risk confusing people with road cars, because they don’t sell tyres for the road. Getting straight to it, we’ll be starting from a cold pressure, build up tyre temperature and pressure during the track session, then check tyre pressures immediately we come in.
You will see then exactly how many psi you need to take out of each tyre to get to your target hot pressures in the next track session. Hoosier tyre pressure recommendations for Dot radials (semi-slick racing tyres): Light Vehicles 1800 – 2200lbs: Hot Pressure 32 – 34 psi 2200 – 2600lbs: 34 – 36 psi 2600 – 3000lbs: 36 – 40 psi OVER 3000lbs 40 – 42 psi That’s it really.
- There is an eight to ten psi difference in the pressure you need between the lightest and heaviest cars, and as a general rule, the same pressures apply to dot radials from other manufacturers.
- Generally speaking again, you can set your cold pressures to 26 psi and then bleed them back to your required hot pressure immediately after your first run.
Of course, if you haven’t reached your hot pressure, then consider adding air for your next run. You do need to keep an eye on the pressures as you go during the day. With higher ambient temperature and more track temperature, you might generate more grip, and therefore build higher tyre pressure. The diagram shows a “wheel pair” (inside and outside tyres) in a corner for Formula SAE race car. The more heavily loaded outside tyre is shown with a vertical load of 350 lbs. The lightly loaded inside tyre has a vertical load of 150 lbs. The static weight on each tyre is 250lbs and, as shown in the diagram, the weight transfer from inside tyre to outside tyre is 100 lbs.
- I don’t think I am speaking out of school with this, because the data is over 10 years old.
- However, we should remember that data like this is expensive to produce, and the only reason it is available to us is through the work of the Formula SAE Tire Consortium, a volunteer run organisation with the support of Calspan Tire Testing facility, and the senior vehicle dynamics engineers and FSAE judges that have made it all possible.
We are looking at tyre pressure vs coefficient of friction. We have a coefficient of friction of over 2, for what we imagine is a tyre up to racing temperature. The coefficient of friction is our measure of cornering grip in this case. On our most important outside tyre, at 14 psi, we have 2.3 cof x 350 lbs = 805 lbf lateral force (cornering grip).
The tyre pressure of 14 psi may seem low, but remember, an FSAE race car is very light. We would expect a hot tyre pressure in this range, just like your much heavier production car requires a hot tyre pressure about 35psi.) There is a direct relationship between weight of the car and tyre pressure – roughly twice the weight requires twice the pressure.
The most important observation is that for the outside tyre, tyre pressure doesn’t affect maximum lateral grip that much, in a normal range of tyre pressure – 12psi to 16psi is a huge percentage range where grip is shown as virtually unchanged. We do need to add one complexity here.
The lateral grip we are looking at in the diagram is an average value. The lateral force is greater when the load is coming on, forcing the rubber into the road, and somewhat less when the tyre is unloading. I’ve seen some data indicating a wide difference in the lateral force generated, loading vs unloading, especially for lower pressures.
From what I can see, with higher tyre pressure, loading vs unloading lateral force is more consistent. Could indicate the higher pressure in the range is better. The second observation is that the inside tyre loses grip fast as pressure increases. The inside tyre would work better with a lower pressure.
But of course, it is doing less work than the inside tyre, so does it matter? We have already calculated the lateral grip on the outside tyre at 14 psi as 805 lbf. At 14 psi, the inside tyre lateral grip is 2.55 x 150 lbs = 382 lbf. If we dropped the inside pressure 1 psi, we would gain 10 lbf of lateral grip – maybe not enough to get excited about.
But for speedway, where the car is always turning left, ashphalt and dirt, dropping the inside tyre pressure is a big deal. Inside tyre pressure should be 60% to 70% of outside pressure. Tyre Maximum Cornering Grip vs “Tyre Responsiveness” Two race cars may have similar max cornering grip (max lateral grip) – same grip mid corner.
Yet one may be significantly quicker in corner entry and/or exit, even to the extent of seconds per lap. So it works out that we are not so interested in the maximum cornering grip, more so in what happens as cornering grip in the tyres build up in corner entry and let go in corner exit. In this next diagram, we show tyre pressure vs “cornering stiffness”.
Increasing cornering stiffness means the tyre builds slip angle faster, and therefore builds tyre grip faster. If this is within a range the driver can feel, we expect that the tyre will more responsive. An example. Initially, say the car does not rotate well on corner entry, resulting in understeer. Notice it’s the outside (loaded) tyre that builds the cornering stiffness with increased pressure. The inside tyre actually loses cornering stiffness with increasing pressure. If we increase pressure from 14psi to 16psi, the cornering stiffness goes up by 10lbf/degree of slip angle.
- Thus grip will build faster on corner entry (for example), although ultimate mid corner grip will be unchanged with the pressure increase.
- Tyre Pressures for Circuit Racing Under good track conditions, and reasonable length runs (miimum five or 6 minutes at race speed in the corners), pressure build up from cold to hot should be 7 – 8 psi.
For cars with 50-50 weight distribution, we want the same hot tyre pressure at all 4 wheels. For vehicles with weight biased to the front or rear, we expect around 3 or 4 psi more for the heavy end of the vehicle. Porsche 911 with higher rear weight percentage, maybe higher pressure split again.
When you check after your first run, there may be different pressure build-ups – the outside tyres for the predominant direction of the circuit may get hotter than the other side. But bleed them all back to the same pressure. After the last race, you could wait a few hours for the tyres to cool, and then record your cold pressures.
If you have to go straight out to qualifying at your next race meeting, without a warm-up, you have the cold pressures recorded that will give you the hot pressure you need to do your best lap. For running in the rain, the target hot pressures are the same.
- Just start with higher cold pressures, but do be aware of increasing pressure build-ups on a drying track.
- Autocross Though autocross hot target pressures are the same as those for road racing, you will need to start at a higher cold inflation pressure to compensate for the lower pressure build-ups in autocross racing.
Say that the target hot pressure is 34 psi. You know in a 60 second run, there is no way you’ll get your tyres up to temperature for the first run of the day. You might set a cold pressure of 32 psi and not actually bleed the tyres down until you see 36 psi after a run.
- The idea is to achieve the recommended pressure for the greater part of your run.
- Of course, on stinking hot days with high track temperatures, pressure build-ups will be greater and you will start with lower cold pressure.
- With more experience, you get a better idea of your required starting pressures your starting pressures.
Wet running – target hot pressures are the same as for the dry. Start with your target hot pressures and see if you get any pressure build up at all. In particular, dropping tyre pressures can only hurt grip. Grip will not improve with lower pressures for all the reasons discussed earlier.
Adjusting Balance for Understeer/Oversteer with Tyre Pressure Adjusting balance with the tyre pressures is a last resort. Our first preference is to adjust balance with the anti-roll bars. (For more details see our free on-line suspension tuning workshops at https://www.suspensionsetup.info/ ) When adjusting tyre pressures for oversteer/understeer – think increase tyre pressure for the end you want to “stick” and decrease tyre pressure at the other end.
For circuit racing it’s not generally going to be a good idea to do this. If an extra 2 to 4 pound pressure split front to rear is working, then maybe not too much harm is done. A bigger split than that, and we must be outside the best grip range of the tyres.
However, for short run events (eg autocross, hill climb), tyre pressures will more often be used as a stop gap measure. Balance is king after all. Google “2016 MX-5 Solo Development – CS” and you’ll see the article there on the Mazdamotorsports website. In this article, Ron Bauer, an SCCA National Solo Champion, is working with Mazda to develop the 2016 ND Mazda for autocross.
In his initial outing, the car is standard, with the Brembo brakes and Bilstein shock options. Initially, the car has way too much oversteer. As a stop gap measure, they needed a 7 lb split to balance the car. It is remarkable for a standard car, that the balance could be this bad.
- An adjustable front anti-roll bar was required.
- The bar chosen has a replaceable centre section, with removable arms.
- Different wall thickness bars provide different roll rates.
- Apparently, the recommended way to fit the new one is the cut the original bar to remove it, to save many hours of work removing parts to allow removal in one piece! This new part, available from Mazdamotorsports, means that all the ND Mazdas in Solo can be properly balanced and run an even tyre pressure all round.
Final Thoughts So where’s this leave us? Best advice is to stick with the recommended hot pressures unless you have the test time to prove anything different. My own thinking is to be on the low end of the recommendation, taking advantage of any improved inside tyre grip.
Another reason? The Hoosier recommendation is that a higher pressure may give a little more maximum grip, but will require greater sensitivity to drive. The peak tyre grip will drop off more sharply. You can see this drop off in any tyre data you look at. My thinking? Let’s go for drivability, and be on the low end of the recommendation.
This is supported by a comment in the Hoosier tyre information – higher pressure (than recommended) may improve grip, but could also require greater driver sensitivity. To read about the characteristics of tyres, rubber compounding and the mechanics of grip (rubber friction) there is no better book than “The Racing and High performance Tire” by Paul Haney.
I will write a second article about tyres to deal with tyre temperatures – pyrometer readings – and camber settings. But the important thing to take away for this article is that maintaining your target hot pressure for the major part of your race, whether it is a ten lap circuit race, or a short run in autocross – this is the number one priority.
This applies under any track conditions, wet or dry. If you’re interested in suspension set-up and how to get a faster race car: Check out our new E Book:
Are softer tires more grippy?
When it comes to replacing the tyres on your car, there’s a lot to think about. What’s your budget? What are your priorities? Would your car be better suited to soft or hard tyres? And that’s just the starting point. Since we all use our vehicles for different purposes, each of these decisions is dependent on your vehicle usage.
- For example, if you use a work van every day to run deliveries, your vehicle requirements will differ from someone using their car for weekend road trips or small journeys.
- Here are our top tips for choosing the right option for your specific vehicle, and what you should keep in mind along the way.
- Longevity When it comes time to change around those wheels of yours, it’s important to consider how they’ll last in the long run.
Depending on your vehicle requirements, your tyres may be comprised of different tread patterns and rubber mixes, which can affect grip and durability outcomes. Most of the time, soft tyres can leave more rubber on the road, so because of this, they don’t last as long as their harder counterparts.
For example, racing cars use very soft tyres that essentially keep the car on the track, but they can only last for part of a race, if that. On the other hand, harder variants may not grip as well, but they are cheaper and last longer. Cost Soft tyres can be more expensive than harder types, usually due to them wearing out quicker and needing to be replaced more regularly.
On average, these options can last up to 20,000 km, whereas harder models can carry a lifetime of 60,000 km. Although soft tyres have a shorter life expectancy, their cornering and handling are often better, which can make for a safer driving experience.
- Grip One of the main differences between these two types is the amount of grip each one offers.
- Soft makes tend to provide better grip, but a drawback is that they leave more rubber on the road.
- When it comes to replacing them, most people opt for all-season options, as they ultimately perform well in all different types of weather.
Although their performance is not as good in dry weather as high-performance tyres, they just make for a great all-round choice. Tread Depth Intermediate tread depth can provide a smooth and stable ride, increasing overall tyre longevity. The grooves help mud fall off the rubber, instead of sticking to them.
What affects grip of a tire?
However, finding the limit of grip and continually driving at it, is not easy to perfect. Our pro-driver, Scott Mansell, takes an in-depth look into understanding grip to help you be faster on track. This tutorial will cover: The coefficient of friction between the tyre and the track is determined by the track surface and the compound of the tyre.
Different circuits use different varieties of asphalt which give varying grip levels. Other things can influence the grip level too, such as what has been driving at the track in the days before your lapping. For example, if there has been an F1 race the weekend before, it’s likely the circuit will be very grippy, due to the amount of soft rubber that has built up on the surface itself.
- On the other hand, if there has been a historic meeting, there will likely be lots of fuel and oil on the track surface, causing it to be horribly slippery.
- The next point that affects a tyres grip is the size of the contact patch.
- The contact patch is the amount of the tyre that is actually touching the track surface – which is ordinarily quite small.
If you make this contact patch larger, by fitting wider tyres for example, you will instantly have more grip. The final detail that affects a tyres grip is the vertical load on the tyre. The more weight you put through the tyre, the more it’s being pushed into the track and the more grip you’ll have.
- Now, you shouldn’t just go and add as much lead to your car as possible – you’ll also need to decelerate, turn and accelerate that weight, so it certainly wouldn’t be an advantage.
- However, this is why cars with downforce can corner so quickly – their tyres are being pushed into the ground with a lot of force, without adding weight to the car.
This is also the reason weight transfer is relevant. A professional driver can alter the car’s balance – the grip difference between the front and the rear axles – as they corner. They will move the car’s mass around – through the suspension – giving either end more, or less, grip.
Many amateur drivers are worried about the first time they break traction on track – it’s understandable as if you go too far, it’s easy to have an accident. The first thing to understand is that when a car breaks grip, it doesn’t just spin out of control. As long as your inputs are smooth, you’ll get plenty of warning about when the tyres are about to break traction.
If you take a look at the diagram below, you will see that the limit of grip isn’t just a line, it’s a band. The car can break traction and slide quite a significant amount and still come back from it. There are two ways a tyre can break grip: laterally and longitudinally. When a tyre breaks grip sideways, the car slide will understeer or oversteer. We have an upcoming article that will go into these two terms more deeply. However, understeer is when the front of the car breaks grip and doesn’t turn as much as you want it to, and oversteer is when the rear of the car breaks grip and feel like it is going to spin.
- When the tyre breaks grip longitudinally there will be an under or over rotation of the tyre relative to the car’s speed – also known as locking up and wheel spin.
- If a driver brakes with too much force, the tyre will not be able to decelerate as much as you would like and so will stop rotating – this is a lock up.
You don’t lose all of the grip when the tyre stops turning, but the car won’t slow as quickly as it could. You could also create a flat spot – where the tyre is flat in one area because it’s been locked for a period and wears down very quickly. If you try to accelerate with too much force, the tyre will over rotate and you will have wheel spin.
Again, the grip doesn’t just disappear, but you won’t have as much accelerational force as possible. The wheelspin will also cause your rear tyres to heat up significantly and could take them over their optimum temperature range. One of the biggest difficulties and largest losers of lap time for amateur drivers is finding – and driving at – the edge of grip.
It’s a difficult task using the maximum grip of the tyre, even in one section of a corner, let alone using all of the tyres grip in all areas. I always tell my drivers to build up their speed gently. The reason being is that if you rush this process and increase your speed through a corner in big chunks, the potential to go too far and possibly spin is increased substantially.
- Take a look at the diagram below which shows a typical speed v distance trace for a corner where the car slows, turns and then accelerates again.
- This trace shows the fastest possible route through the corner in question.
- Now, we’re going to presume that the racing line, braking technique, steering and throttle inputs are all smooth and with good technique.
On lap one, the driver is a long way below the car’s potential cornering – it’s the first lap and they’re finding their way. On the second lap, the driver has a substantial increase in minimum corner speed but is still quite a way from the optimal pace.
You can see the same for the follow laps, but what’s important is that the closer you feel you are to the limit of grip, the smaller the increase in cornering speed is. The reason being that when you finally reach the edge of grip and begin to break traction, you’re only exceeding the limit by one or two percent – not 10 percent.
If you overshoot by 10 percent, it may be that you can’t make it around the corner and end up having an accident. Aside from ensuring you increase speed through the corner gradually, there’re a few things that you can do to help the slide – when it finally comes – to be progressive.
- As you’ll have read numerous times in our articles, to be fast, you must be smooth.
- Having fluid inputs – into the brakes, steering and throttle – will also help you drive at the edge of grip consistently and safely while on track.
- On the other hand, having rough inputs will mean that the car brakes grip suddenly and can take a driver by surprise.
This isn’t what we want. When a car breaks traction quickly, the driver is reacting to the slide, rather than expecting it. It sounds a little strange but think about trying to push someone over. If you push them hard and quickly, it’s likely that they will fall.
However, gently load up your forceful push and they’ll probably stay standing. Your driving inputs should be thought of in the same way. A fast driver can use 100% of the grip available when he’s braking, turning and accelerating. It’s simple in theory but less simple in practice, as blending the longitudinal and lateral grip requires a very subtle touch.
Take a look at the traction circle diagram below. The traction circle diagram represents the tyre’s maximum grip available in any direction: braking, turning and acceleration or a combination. One important thing to understand is that if a tyres grip is used at 100% of it’s potential in one direction – e.g., braking – not even 1% of it can be used to turn.
- The diagram below explains that you must give up some braking grip in order to turn.
- Firstly, let’s say the car is arriving at the corner at terminal velocity.
- As shown below, the centre of the circle shows the car moving at a constant speed and in a straight line, with the tyres not using any grip for braking, turning or acceleration.
In the next diagram, you can see the driver beings to brake and the tyres are using 100% of their grip (longitudinally) to decelerate the car – and no grip (laterally) to turn as the car is travelling in a straight line. Now the diagram shows the car beginning to turn into the corner.
- As you can see, because some grip is now being used to turn (laterally), we cannot decelerate (longitudinally) as much as before.
- In the next image, you can see we’re approaching the apex.
- The car is again at a constant speed, with the tyre’s grip solely being used for turning (laterally).
- This is the phase of the corner where a driver is transitioning their feet from the brake to the accelerator pedal.
Now the car’s at (or just beyond) the apex and we’re going to begin to open up the steering angle and start to accelerate. Note that we have to open up the steering so that we can transfer some of the grip from turning the car (laterally) to accelerating the car (longitudinally).
As I mentioned earlier, driving at 100% of the tyre’s potential all the way through the corner is difficult, requires lots of feel and more to the point, experience. On the traction circle diagram below we can see a comparison of a professional (green) and amateur (red) drivers use of grip. As you saw before, the pro is using 100% of the available grip through all phases of the corner.
The amateur driver, however, will likely be a little careful on the brakes and not reach the tyre’s potential during this period. The amateur driver will then release the brakes (not trail braking), enter and drive through the corner slightly under the grip threshold before they accelerate out.
- There’s nothing wrong with this approach – it’s exactly how a beginner should drive.
- However, the aim is to bring these two traces closer together with each day on track.
- How you do this goes beyond the scope of this single article, as it’s a complex blend of many techniques.
- However, it’s something that we’ll study in coming tutorials, where we’ll look closely into advanced braking, weight transfer, driving at the limit and much more.
As always, thanks for reading and if you have any questions, please get in contact.